The lowest proportion of male homicides was in the White ethnic group (65%). This has remained relatively stable across the past 5 years and across ethnic groups. The Asian ethnic group (2%) were significantly less likely than the White ethnic group (4%) to be victims of a personal crime, whilst the Mixed ethnic group (7%) were significantly more likely. The guilty plea rate (GPR) of defendants who were committed for trial at Crown Court increased across all ethnic groups from 2018-2020. Lower GPRs of defendants from minority ethnic groups will likely be related to the higher proportion deciding to elect to be tried by a jury at Crown Court. In relation to crime and deviance, sociologists are interested in the apparently significant differential incidence of criminality and victimhood among the various ethnicities. In 2020/21, stop and searches which resulted in arrests accounted for 12% of total arrests made in England and Wales (where ethnicity is known). Will McMahon and Rebecca Roberts consider ethnicity, harm and crime. * Production, supply, intent to supply (Class B). A proven reoffence is defined as any offence committed in a one-year follow-up period that resulted in a court conviction, caution, reprimand or warning in this timeframe, or a further six-month waiting period to allow the offence to be proven in court[footnote 68]. Where ethnicity was recorded in the data, for all young offenders sentenced or cautioned, over half were eligible for FSM: White (57%), Black (66%), Asian (59%), and Other (68%). black people were over 3 times as likely to be arrested as white people - there were 29 arrests for every 1,000 black people, and 9 arrests for every 1,000 white people. However, priority has been given to allow for a full year of reliable data that shows continuation of long-term trends. Fast Forward to the 21st century, and the criminological debate about race and crime now centred on the involvement of Black young people in street gangs. There were 292 (15%) victims in the Black, 147 (8%) in the Asian and 107 (5%) in the Other ethnic groups[footnote 17]. In 2020, 41% of drug offence prosecutions of Black defendants were for possession of a Class B drug (cannabis). The parole board carry out risk assessments on prisoners to determine whether they can be safely released into the community. This contrasts with the proportion of pupils in the overall population where 14% are eligible for FSM. To meet these commitments, all of our statistical publications will: Ensure that the need for major revisions for any series are pre-announced on the Ministry of Justice website. The Chinese or Other ethnic group had the highest number of defendants remanded in custody, at 62%, whereas the White ethnic group had the lowest number of defendants remanded in custody, at 42%. As outlined in the defendants chapter, drug offences accounted for the highest proportion of convictions within each ethnic group except for White offenders. Postal Point 10.31, Floor 10. Over the last 5 years, there has been a decrease in the proportion of stop and searches conducted on Black individuals in London, from 36% in 2016/17 to 32% in 2020/21. In this section, where there are statistically significant differences between groups to the 95% level, this will be stated. Where ethnicity was known, first time offenders[footnote 64] accounted for 16% of all adult offenders cautioned or convicted for an indicatable offence in 2020. In 2020, children from the Black ethnic group had a higher proportion of defendants remanded in custody at Crown Court, at 55%, compared to children from the White ethnic group (45%). In 2020/21, 43% of all stop and searches (where ethnicity is known) were conducted in London and involved higher proportions of persons searched from minority ethnic groups when compared to the rest of England and Wales (Figure 4.02). In Britain official statistics on crime are produced annually. Many of these offences were dealt with in London by the Metropolitan police force, where greater levels of stop and search activity likely lead to increased arrests and subsequent charges for drug possession. , Data is self-declared from HR records, as at 31 December 2020. Where figures have been published, links are provided as part of the text and tables. The most recent figures in this publication show the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on criminal court prosecutions and outcomes following guidance and restrictions since March 2020. A further review by Haylock et al in 2020 of risk factors associated with weapon-related crime for young people aged 10 to 24 within the UK strengthens both of these reports. The HMPPS Offender Equalities report 2020/21 also includes information on: Mother and Baby units, Sexual Orientation in the Prison Population, Transgender Prisoners, Accredited Programmes, Incentives and Earned Privileges and Electronic Monitoring. Black males accounted for 12% of all male prosecutions, compared to Black females, accounting for 7% of all female prosecutions. Asian individuals had the highest proportion of fines given, at 23%, in comparison to White individuals (16%). Figure 8.03: Sentencing outcomes for possession of weapons offences, by ethnicity, 2020. , There is only ever one principal suspect per homicide victim. 1. , The decrease in numbers of sentences in 2020 is mainly a result of court closures due to COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. Racial discrimination in America has a significant implication on crime in the region. This publication compiles statistics from data sources across the Criminal Justice System (CJS), to provide a combined perspective on the typical experiences of different ethnic groups, how outcomes vary between groups and how this has changed over time. The overall style and composition of the report have also been changed: the condensing of commentary is intended to make it easier for readers to interpret the relative experiences of ethnic groups throughout the CJS. The proportions across ethnic groups have remained relatively stable in the past 5 years. In 2020, a higher proportion of prosecutions of Black and Mixed defendants were against children, 12% and 14% respectively, compared to 5% of White defendants[footnote 63]. There were statistically significant decreases in the number of victims for personal crimes since 2015/16 in the Black (from 7% to 4%) and Asian (from 4% to 2%) ethnic groups. This was followed by Black (3.5), Asian (3.3) and Other ethnic groups (3.2). Check benefits and financial support you can get, Find out about the Energy Bills Support Scheme, Ethnicity and the criminal justice system statistics 2020,, Police powers and procedures: Stop and search and arrests, England and Wales, year ending 31 March 2021, Criminal Justice Statistics quarterly: December 2020 publication, Offender Management statistics quarterly publication, Research report on population estimates by ethnic group and religion,, Crime in England and Wales: year ending March 2020, Homicide in England and Wales - Office for National Statistics (, Criminal justice system statistics quarterly: December 2020 - GOV.UK (, Source: GCSE and equivalent results in England 2014/15 (Revised). men from Mixed ethnic backgrounds (21%) were more likely to be . 327.21%. In 2020, 79% of crime higher legal aid workload was for White clients, with 10% for Black, 8% for Asian, and 3% for Mixed clients. , For more information, see Crime in England and Wales: year ending March 2020. The proportion of male homicides was highest in the Black ethnic group (89%), followed by the Other ethnic group (77%), and the Asian ethnic group (68%). , Pupils at the end of Key Stage 4 are typically aged 15 and 16; please see A Technical Guide to Statistics on Ethnicity and the Criminal Justice System, 2020 for further details. In 2020, 1% of children had long criminal histories, this was similar across all ethnic groups. and . Crime lower work tends to be relatively high volume, lower cost units of criminal legal aid work. When controlling for offence mix across ethnic groups, a decrease in ACSL was observed across all ethnic groups. The difference in ACSL can be attributed to a range of factors, including the varying offence mix across ethnic groups (see figure 8.01). This trend has fluctuated across recent years, with the Mixed ethnic group having the highest ACSL in 2019 (at 71.4 months), and the Chinese or Other group having the lowest (at 46.7 months). Figure 4.02: Distribution of stop and searches in London and England and Wales, by ethnicity, 2020/21. These proportions were similar to those of the ethnic breakdown of the prison population. White victims accounted for over three quarters (77%) of homicide victims in both the 0-14 and 21+ age groups. The total number of all arrests (where ethnicity is known) decreased by 21% between 2016/17 and 2020/21; this decrease was relatively consistent across most ethnic groups. The largest proportionate change was seen in prosecutions of White defendants, decreasing from 79% of all prosecutions to 76% (resulting in a 1% proportionate increase across all ethnic minority groups). Personal crime [footnote 11] against adults. Where changes to data systems or data quality issues do not allow for this, trends have been presented for the longest periods possible. Larger proportions of defendants from Black, Asian and Chinese or Other ethnic groups who were remanded in custody were acquitted or not tried (ranging from 13% to 15%) compared with defendants of White and Mixed ethnicities (9% and 10% respectively). This number does not include offences such as speeding. In 2019/20, 10% of adults . Together, these five offence groups equate to 97% of all prosecutions and convictions for indictable drug offences where ethnicity is known. In line with previous years, Black defendants continued to serve a greater proportion of their original determinate sentence in custody (67% in 2020) when compared with Mixed (66%) White (60%), Asian (58%) and prisoners from Other ethnic groups (58%). In 2020, White male and female offenders had the shortest ACSL, 20.2 months and 12.6 months respectively, while Asian male and female offenders had the longest ACSL, 28.9 months and 22.3, respectively. Concordance rates for all PSR figures can be found in the defendants tables (5.14b)[footnote 41]. Arrests were the principal outcome in 12% of stop and searches, community resolutions in 7% and other outcomes in 6% . , Ethnicity is self-identified, and coverage has decreased from 93% in 2016/17 to 86% in 2020/21. Figure 7.06: Adult reoffending rate by age group and ethnicity, April 2018 to March 2019 offender cohort, England and Wales. This is the largest decrease in the proportion of White practitioners of all the CJS organisations. Convictions by offence group may be influenced by factors other than ethnicity. Similar to trends in adults, children from the Asian ethnic group (3%) were significantly less likely to be victim of personal crime than those from the White ethnic group (7%). Drug offences accounted for 40% of convictions for Black offenders, 39% for Asian offenders, 32% for Mixed ethnicity offenders, 31% for Chinese or Other ethnic groups, and 19% for White offenders. These include: Survey data from Her Majestys Inspectorate of Prisons Annual Report, (New) Understanding Educational Background of Offenders (MoJ/ DfE data share). In 2020, Asian offenders had the longest ACSL for drug offences, at 46.2 months. 9% of White people aged 75 and over feared crime, compared with 27% of Asian people in the same age group. Unfortunately, we do not hold police recorded crime figures on robbery or offences involving a knife or sharp instrument, by ethnic group. As reported in other research, the young people used ideas about origin, race and ethnicity in loose and shifting ways (Back; Butcher). The overall ethnicity trends for stop and searches tend to be influenced by stop and searches conducted in London, due to Londons ethnic composition compared with the rest of England and Wales. This section looks at the proportion of determinate[footnote 50] sentence served[footnote 51]. The proportion of police officers from minority ethnic groups has increased from 6.3% to 7.6% between 2017 and 2021[footnote 95]. In 2020/21, 19% of arrests of Black suspects were for drug offences. We use some essential cookies to make this website work. Ethnicity refers to an identity based on belonging to a group defined by common cultural or national traditions. Supplementary Excel (in an Open .ods format) tables accompany the chapters, providing additional data where the figures have not previously been published (or not published in that form). , In 2018/19 Lancashire, Warwickshire and West Mercia stated that new IT systems and/or processes had led to changes in recording of detentions under section 136 of the Mental Health Act. Arrest Statistics by Ethnicity. This decrease was also significant for White (down 44%), Black (down 80%) and Asian (down 67%) children, in isolation. No causative links can be drawn from these summary statistics. Read this article. Within the Ministry of Justices statistical publications there can be three main reasons for statistics to be revised: Changes in how either source administrative systems collect information or a change in statistical methodology to improve accuracy and measurement. The Ministry of Justice aims to avoid the need for revisions to publications unless they are absolutely necessary and put systems and processes in place to minimise the number of revisions. Of defendants prosecuted for sexual offences at Crown Court, Black defendants were more likely to be remanded in custody. These provide criminologists, the police and the media with two types of data. A 21% decrease was seen in requirements started under suspended sentence orders. ethnicity and crime statistics uk 2020trees that grow well in clay soil texas. Between 2017/18 and 2019/20, almost half (49%) of homicide victims aged 15 to 17 and 37% of victims aged 18 to 20 were from the Black ethnic group. When defendants appear in court, they have the right to either speak for themselves, or to be represented and to have someone with legal expertise speak on their behalf. Figure 3.01: Percentage of adults who reported as victims of a CSEW personal crime by ethnic group, England and Wales 2015/16 and 2019/20[footnote 12]. In the latest year, suspicion of drugs and offensive weapons were the two most common reasons for stops across all ethnic groups. The most common sentencing outcome across all ethnic groups for sexual offences was immediate custody. In 2020, Black offenders made up 32% of the prison population for under-18-year olds, despite accounting for only 13% of the whole prison population. The proportion of White children remanded at Crown Court has been increasing over the last 5 years from 26% in 2016 to 45% in 2020, converging with the proportion of children remanded in custody from minority ethnic groups. This trend has remained relatively stable over the past 5 years, with the Black ethnic group consistently having the highest proportion of defendants electing themselves to be heard at Crown Court. The ACSL for Asian children was 20.6 months, 18.2 months for Black children and 18 months for Chinese or Other children. Violent Crimes / 100k People. When conducting a stop and search, police record the reason for the stop and search as well as the ethnicity of the person searched[footnote 25]. This is a key statistics relevant to the A-level Sociology crime and deviance module. They have been excluded from all analyses in this chapter. Above National Average. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Of those who received a suspended sentence order, higher proportions of White and Mixed ethnicity offenders received rehabilitation requirements[footnote 60], whereas higher proportions of Black, Asian and Chinese or Other ethnicity offenders received unpaid work requirements. In 2020/21, 43% of all stop and searches (where ethnicity is known) were conducted in London, involving a higher proportion of persons from minority ethnic groups when compared to the rest of England and Wales. National Statistics status means that official statistics meet the highest standards of trustworthiness, quality and public value. Criminal legal aid can be split into two categories, crime higher and crime lower[footnote 48]. Following prosecution (which can include being sent to Crown Court), defendants found guilty are subsequently convicted and sentenced. In the latest year, the Other ethnicity for children had the highest average number of reoffences per reoffender at 4.5, followed by White (4.1), Black (3.5), and Asian (3.4) average number of reoffences. In 2020, the ethnic group with the highest concordance rate with their PSR for immediate custodial sentences was the Mixed ethnic group, at 89%; this has remained consistent since 2018. The largest increases . In previous years homicide data has been presented in relation to population data, by giving the number of deaths per million of the population of each ethnic group. Ethnicity is recorded by either self-reporting or as identified by a police officer[footnote 2]. The following offence groups will be of particular focus: As noted in the introduction, comparisons across ethnic groups do not account for previous offending history, detailed offence mix and other offender characteristics and that should be considered when interpreting results in this section. in the year ending March 2020, 13% of people aged 16 and over said they had been the victim of a crime at least once in the last year. For the majority of the report, no controls have been applied for other characteristics of ethnic groups (such as average income, geography, offence mix or offender history), so it is not possible to determine what proportion of differences identified in this report are directly attributable to ethnicity. Principal suspects in homicides with White victims were most likely to be a friend/acquaintance (29%). This was the only region in which homicide victims were more likely to be from the Black ethnic group (42%), followed by White ethnic group (40%). Single Parent Families are more common among African-Caribbean Families, which may be related to higher rates of crime In 2007 Almost half the black children in Britain were being raised by single parents. he highest proportion for Class B drugs (28% in 2020). The latest data available during the compilation of this report have been included. In 2020, 40% of White defendants were remanded in custody compared to 51% of Chinese or Other and 49% of Black defendants. Custody Rate and Average Custodial Sentence Length (ACSL). The average number of assailants was 1.29 and did not vary significantly by the victims' race or ethnicity. The total number of arrests have gone down over the last five years, in line with the declining crime rates. over the 7 years covered, the percentage of White people who said they were victims of crime went down from 17% to 13%. To help us improve GOV.UK, wed like to know more about your visit today. Where young offenders received a custodial sentence, the proportion eligible for FSM increased across all ethnic groups. Over the last 5 years, the proportion of suspects who were stopped and searched remained relatively stable across most ethnic groups, with a slight decrease in those from the Black ethnic group (21% to 17%). Sociologists consider both why this might be and also . These are the main factors that have been contributing to crime in the contemporary world. This was followed by defendants from the Chinese or Other ethnic groups (16%), Asian defendants (14%), Mixed defendants (12%) and White defendants (12%). Unfortunately, we do not hold data on offences . there were 646,292 arrests between April 2020 and March 2021 - over 30,000 fewer than the previous year. , Excluding adults where their age bracket is unknown (2 defendants). This total includes exclusions from previous schools covered by the exclusion legislation. This is the latest . , Data used in the HMPPS workforce quarterly statistics are self-declared from HR records, as at 31 March 2021. There was a decrease in the proportion of stop and searches conducted on Black individuals in London, from 36% in 2016/17 to 32% in 2020/21. Simon Hallsworth and Tara Young (2008) were sceptical, dismissing . The following analysis cannot be used to make conclusions about the overall pupil population that have the characteristics described as the matched dataset is of offenders only[footnote 71]. In the three-year period 2017/18[footnote 13] to 2019/20, there were 1,951[footnote 14] homicides in the Home Office Homicide Index[footnote 15], where ethnicity of the victim was recorded. Location: England and Wales. Well send you a link to a feedback form. Figure 5.06: Relative Rate Index (RRI): The custodial sentencing rate for defendants expressed as a proportion of the of the overall sentencing rate for all defendants sentenced for indictable offences, 2016 to 2020, England and Wales. By ethnicity and socio-economic group. Search. This chapter explores police activity by ethnicity of persons stopped and searched and/or arrested. Convictions across indictable offence groups varied between ethnic groups in 2020, with drug offences accounting for the highest proportion of offenders within each ethnic group except for White offenders, where the highest proportion of convictions was for theft offences. The proportion of suspects stopped and searched remained relatively stable across most ethnic groups, with a decrease from 21% to 17% for the Black ethnic group. Over half of young offenders sentenced or cautioned had SEN. The ethnic profile of practitioners in the Criminal Justice System (CJS) has become slightly more diverse over the last 5 years. , Self-declared from HR records reported table 3_5_JO_Magistrates Judicial Diversity Statistics, 2021 publication, the quoted figure covers all court judges; Judicial Diversity Statistics 2017. , A first-time offender is an offender who has been arrested by the police in England and Wales and has received a first conviction, caution or youth caution for any offence recorded on the Police National Computer. Women and the Criminal Justice System and Race and the Criminal Justice System; The Women and Race reports are compendium publications, each bringing together a wide range of statistics related to the criminal justice system, broken down by sex and by ethnicity.
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